Video Transcript March Ed note: Some transcripts contain words or phrases that are inaudible or difficult to hear and are, therefore, designated in square brackets. It’s the 20th of February, , and it’s my great privilege to be meeting again with Klaus Dona. Klaus is going to be doing an audio commentary on one of his extremely special, unusual, and fascinating slide shows about the artifacts and the various phenomena that he has been researching, discovering, investigating personally all over the world relating to what I think you could legitimately call The Hidden History of the Human Race. Would you say that that’s a good summary, Klaus? That’s a very good summary, yes. Klaus is going to take you through his own journey… you can accompany him on his own journey through his own discoveries. And take it away, Klaus.
Devonian Relics Earth Sculpted by Ice: Near the end of the Devonian Period some million years ago – long before Earth’s Ice Ages – Illinois, as well as much of the Midwestern United States, was at the bottom of a shallow sea teeming with life. The seabed in this region was iron-rich and oily with decayed sea life. Much of the ancient plants that came later during the Pennsylvanian Period mya became coal in this region.
After the water had steamed away, a smooth, reddish-brown mass rich in silicates was left. Most of this material became microcrystalline jasper.
Chronological dating, or simply dating, is the process of attributing to an object or event a date in the past, allowing such object or event to be located in a previously established chronology. This usually requires what is commonly known as a “dating method”.
Radioactive decay[ edit ] Example of a radioactive decay chain from lead Pb to lead Pb. The final decay product, lead Pb , is stable and can no longer undergo spontaneous radioactive decay. All ordinary matter is made up of combinations of chemical elements , each with its own atomic number , indicating the number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes , with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
A particular isotope of a particular element is called a nuclide. Some nuclides are inherently unstable. That is, at some point in time, an atom of such a nuclide will undergo radioactive decay and spontaneously transform into a different nuclide. This transformation may be accomplished in a number of different ways, including alpha decay emission of alpha particles and beta decay electron emission, positron emission, or electron capture.
Another possibility is spontaneous fission into two or more nuclides.
The Indus Valley Civilization: An ornamented past, revealed in 5,000-year-old artifacts and jewelry
Cassiterite ore was then crushed at the surface, washed, and smelted with charcoal in rather small crucibles rather than the large furnaces characteristic of copper smelting sites. Goltepe has yielded many crucibles in which the tin was smelted into a slag that contained globules of pure tin, which had to be separated out by crushing and re-washing. The small scale of the crucible operations, and the crushing of the slag for multi-stage refining, make it difficult to detect the scale of the operations.
For over a decade, archaeologist Tom Levy has been researching the evolution of that Edomite kingdom. According to Genesis, the Edomites, descendents of Jacob’s brother Esau, created a kingdom even before ancient Israel. The remains of Edomite settlements cling to the mountaintops and plateaus high above Petra.
Yellow Ware. Defining Attributes. Yellow ware is highly-fired earthenware with a buff to yellow paste and a clear lead or alkaline glaze. Chronology.
Medicine Stones Clan of the River Owl: Because two small owl figurines the first, Winking Owl, below were recovered shortly after finding Since then we’ve found more owl figures. In early Indian folklore, owls represent wisdom and helpfulness, and have powers of prophecy. Owls were especially helpful in that they killed mice and other rodents that invaded food stores at night.
Owls are also fearless – even around humans, possible making them the most bold of the raptors. Some figurines suggest the River Owl buried their dead and had domesticated dogs. Winking Owl Noctua nivere This was the second figurine found, and though not as distinctive or impressive as some of our other finds, we recognized it as an artifact none-the-less. Note the ruffled feathers on the owl’s breast.
This figure is made of two different grades of Carnelian – a rare orange-to-red chalcedony with translucent qualities, the head obviously of the higher quality.
Archaeological Dating: Stratigraphy and Seriation
Charred bones are better preserved and are therefore relatively more reliable. Charcoal is best material specially if derived from short live plants. How to collect samples:
As competition from other sugar refineries and from alternative forms of sweetener, particularly corn syrup, mounted over the decades, chemists, machinists and even artists all contributed to innovative technologies, products and packaging, that solidified Domino as the most recognized name in sugar.
Yet unravelling these mysterious puzzles remains as important as ever, since many of these enigmatic inscriptions could hold the keys to understanding civilizations that have long since faded into the pages of history. Here we feature ten of the most fascinating undeciphered codes and inscriptions throughout history. Framing these eight letters, at a slightly lower level, are the letters D M. It is not clear whether the inscription will ever be decoded, nor whether it was ever intended to be.
Whoever inscribed it must have known that the letters would last throughout the centuries, and be viewed by civilizations to come. It is possible that only a select few ever knew the purpose of the letters and what they stand for. The Mysteries Trapped Within Mayan Hieroglyphs For hundreds of years, linguists have been trying to decode the ancient hieroglyphic script of the Maya, left behind on monument carvings, painted pottery, and drawn in handmade bark-paper books.
Thankfully, decipherment has been advancing at a rapid rate and significant progress is being made. This will be a huge step forward for deepening our understanding of the social, political, and historical aspects of Maya civilization. For a long time many scholars believed that the script did not represent a language at all, or that it wasn’t a complete writing system, and it is easy to see why this belief prevailed – the writing is arguably one of the most visually striking writing systems of the world.
It is very complex, with hundreds of unique signs or glyphs in the form of humans, animals, supernatural objects, and abstract designs.
archaeology exam 2
The Grooved Spheres 2. Giant Stone Balls of Costa Rica Workmen hacking and burning their way through the dense jungle of Costa Rica to clear an area for banana plantations in the s stumbled upon some incredible objects: They varied in size from as small as a tennis ball to an astonishing 8 feet in diameter and weighing 16 tons! Although the great stone balls are clearly man-made, it is unknown who made them, for what purpose and, most puzzling, how they achieved such spherical precision.
Impossible Fossils Fossils, as we learned in grade school, appear in rocks that were formed many thousands of years ago.
In this article, an overview is presented of the status of the radiocarbon dating of iron-based materials. Recent advances include simplification in sample preparation and reduction in sample size for accelerator mass spectrometry measurements, and the potential use of rust as a viable source of material for radiocarbon dating.
Play media Local artisan cutting and filing animal horn to make combs in Alappuzha , Kerala Combs consist of a shaft and teeth that are placed at a perpendicular angle to the shaft. Combs can be made out of a number of materials, most commonly plastic , metal or wood. Combs made from ivory  and tortoiseshell  were once common but concerns for the animals that produce them have reduced their usage. When made from wood, combs are largely made of boxwood , cherry wood or other fine-grained wood.
Good quality wooden combs are usually handmade and polished. A hairdressing comb may have a thin, tapered handle for parting hair and close teeth. Common hair combs usually have wider teeth halfway and finer teeth for the rest of the comb. Historically, their main purpose was securing long hair in place, decorating the hair, matting sections of hair for dreadlocks , or keeping a kippah or skullcap in place. In Spain, a peineta is a large decorative comb used to keep a mantilla in place.
A comb is used to distribute colors in paper marbling to make the swirling colour patterns in comb-marbled paper. Moreover, the comb is also a lamellophone. Comb teeth have harmonic qualities of their own, determined by their shape, length, and material. A comb with teeth of unequal length, capable of producing different notes when picked, eventually evolved into the thumb piano  and musical box.
Using Radiocarbon Dating to Establish the Age of Iron-Based Artifacts
Boccioni made the plaster sculpture in , with the bronze examples seen in museums being cast from the plaster sculpture or from other bronze castings. The work is a part of the short lived but influential futurist movement. Originating in early twentieth century Italy, futurism was an artistic, philosophical and social movement that emphasised modernity, constant change and movement into the future, technology and inventions, speed, youth and violence.
Archaeology definition, the scientific study of historic or prehistoric peoples and their cultures by analysis of their artifacts, inscriptions, monuments, and other such remains, especially those that have been excavated. See more.
Although the dividing line between the Lower and Middle stages is not so clearly defined as that separating the Middle and Upper subdivisions, this system is still used by most workers. Lower Paleolithic On the basis of the very rich materials from the Somme Valley in the north of France and the Thames Valley in the south of England, two main Lower Paleolithic traditons have been recognized in western Europe. These are as follows: The type tools of the Abbevillian formerly Chellean , which takes its name from the town of Abbeville, France, on the metre foot terrace of the Somme Valley, consist of pointed, bifacial implements, or hand axes.
Their forms vary, and the flaking is generally irregular; it is probable that they were manufactured either with a stone hammer or on a stone anvil. Associated with these crude types of hand axes, simple flake tools are found, but they lack definite form. The Abbevillian has been reported from deposits of lower Pleistocene First Interglacial age. The Acheulean, which begins in the Second Interglacial and persists to the close of the Third Interglacial, covers by far the longest time span of any of the Paleolithic traditions found in western Europe.
The type site is on the metre terrace of the Somme Valley at St. Acheul, near Amiens, in northern France. Acheulean hand axes, which display a marked technological refinement over their Abbevillian precursors , were apparently made by employing a wooden or bone billet rather than the more primitive stone-on-stone technique. But, except at the very end of the Acheulean cycle of development, there is very little typological difference in the types of hand axes found in the various layers.
The Micoquian , or Final Upper Acheulean, is characterized by elongated hand axes that exhibit very straight and finely chipped edges, in marked contrast with the Lower Acheulean, in which ovate forms predominate. Flake tools occur in all Acheulean levels, the side scrapers being the predominant type.